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Secret Cuban TwitterAn arm of the U.S. government seeking to destabilize the Castro regime in Cuba has taken covert actions to overthrow the government there.

No, that’s not a line out of a Cold War history book. The U.S. Agency for International Development created a fake version of Twitter for Cubans to use in hopes of fomenting what the Associated Press calls a “Cuban Spring” that could, according to one of 1,000 pages of USAID documents, “renegotiate the balance of power between the state and society.”

The plan was to bring Cubans onto the service, called ZunZuneo, then begin feeding them political content designed to incite huge protests reminiscent of 2011’s democratic uprisings in the Middle East, according to the AP. It all sounds rather implausible at a time when the United States is trying to avoid embroiling itself in places, such as Syria and Ukraine. But the program actually exists. In an e-mail, USAID said the plan was reviewed by the Government Accountability Office last year.

“USAID is a development agency, and we work all over the world to help people exercise their universal rights and freedoms,” USAID spokesman Matt Herrick said.

But just because Washington says ZunZuneo is above board doesn’t mean it has an effective grasp on technology’s role in social movements, Internet scholars say.

Beginning with 2009’s Green Revolution in Iran, an entire school of literature has cropped up to analyze social media and its political implications. It wasn’t until 2011, though, that social scientists got their hands on enough case studies to be able to draw meaningful conclusions about Twitter and Facebook as weapons in the hands of revolutionaries. The early days of the Arab uprising in Tunisia and Egypt were marked by breathless reports about social media overwhelming dictatorial regimes. Government attempts to shut the services down only fueled the perception that social media helped cause the uprisings. That perception was quickly dashed by academics and activists with direct ties to the region.

“One of the big points of consensus in our community following the uprisings in the Arab region was that, yes, the [social media] tools were a catalyst, but there were really smart, powerful and long-lasting activist networks that put all of that into motion,” said Ellery Biddle, the editor of Global Voices Advocacy and a close observer of Cuban affairs. “Most of my friends in Egypt who were very, very involved in the first phase of revolution there had been organizing and talking and working together for 10 years before any of this happened. It wasn’t as if someone gave them a cellphone one day, and somebody figured out they could have a revolution.”

Others believe there’s a much simpler way to achieve regime change: Just keep liberalizing the United States’s trade policy with respect to Cuba. According to the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s Jillian York, there’s a lot of technology that could help Cubans circumvent censorship that isn’t making it to the country because of the United States’s own ideologically motivated export restrictions.

Lifting those barriers might do far more to promote American values in Cuba than directly stirring up unrest with a covert communications program, said York.

If that’s true, USAID might have more luck trying its hand at soft power — not subversion.

-Culled from Washington Post

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